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Derivational morphology
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 12 Apr 2022, 13:12.

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Menu 1. Gender-changing derivations 2. Changes in size or mightiness 3. Instrumentals 4. Resultatives, causatives and similar derivations 5. Ability 6. Society 7. Other
In general, these affixes can be used to derive nouns from other nouns or verbs. For adverbs, -e is usually added to the end, while verbs always take -o or -ho.


[edit] [top]Gender-changing derivations

-a Generic noun suffix for common, physically existing things not related to the wilderness. Derived from the ending of most nouns with the common gender, -a

Known synonymous affixes: -ha (mostly if the word ends in o)

Examples:
donosani 'experience' → donosana 'experienced person'
niooni 'dream' → nioona 'picture, illustration'
joo 'to see' → joha 'a sight'

Note: the strategy in the first example has become grammaticalized and is very productive. Any adjectival noun or gerund (very rarely the regular verb stem, too) can be turned into a noun meaning 'the one(s) who/which Xs/is X', i.e. referring to one or several persons or sometimes thing(s) identified by the quality described by the adjectival noun or the state or activity described by the gerund.

The final vowel is always replaced when deriving from gerunds, but not with adjectival nouns.

Examples:
ohaji 'visually beautiful' → ohajia 'the one(s) who/which is/are beautiful'
netiohi 'bordering, limiting' → netioha 'the one(s) who/which border(s)/limit(s)'

-i Generic noun suffix for immaterial and/or abstract things, ideas, concepts etc., also used for some generic nouns and for deriving nouns from verbs. Derived from the ending of most Abstract/Immaterial-gender nouns, -i.

Known synonymous affixes: -hi (particularly used when the word already ends in -i)

Examples:
nesano 'to know' → nesani 'knowledge, knowing'
vuha 'sun' → vuhi 'light'

-u Generic noun suffix for all wilderness-related things that physically exist, such as things to be found in jungles, oceans or other worlds, sometimes also outer space. Also has a few metaphorical uses. Derived from the ending of most Wilderness-gender nouns, -u

Known synonymous affixes: none known at the moment

Examples:
dova 'tree' → dovu 'jungle tree'
saini 'mind, person, people' →sainu 'instinct, subconscious'


[edit] [top]Changes in size or mightiness

-at General augmentative suffix, mostly quantitative. Derived from haadat, "biggestness"

Known synonymous suffixes: -aha, -haa, -haad, ahad

Examples:
saanu 'sea' → saanuahad 'ocean, ocean surface'
seda 'pot' → sedaat 'cauldron'

-it Qualitative augmentative suffix, used when something exceeds something else in a defining quality, for example "magnifying glass" → "microscope". Derived from combining -at with -i.

Known synonymous affixes: -at (rarely)

Examples:
vunojahivo 'magnifying glass' → vujahivit 'microscope'
dooni 'time' →doonat 'special occasion, celebration'

-fi General diminutive suffix. From 'ifi' (a bit, slightly, little by little).

Known synonymous affixes: -ifi (sometimes when the word used as a root ends in a consonant), -fe (when used with adverbs), -ihame (for persons, rare, no longer productive), -ila/-ilu/-ili (gendered variants, rare, no longer productive)

Examples:
dooni 'time' → doonifi 'moment'
favefa 'meal, dish' → favefafi 'snack'


[edit] [top]Instrumentals

-ivo General instrumental suffix, for things that are needed or very useful for something. Probably related to vo 'use'

Examples:
hotio 'to write, be written' → hotivo 'pen, quill, writing implement'
joo 'to see, be seen' → jivo 'glasses'

vaili- Tool or machine derivation prefix, used for tools or machines that, rather than making a job easier, complete it for the most part themselves, like soap vs. washing machine. Assumed to originally having been a compound of 'vahi' + 'li' (machine, tool + to/toward)

Examples:
to 'to go' → vailita 'vehicle'
vunojo 'to show' → vailivunojo 'television'


[edit] [top]Resultatives, causatives and similar derivations

-efa 'Resultative' derivation suffix, used to derive results from dynamic verbs or nouns denoting something that emerges or can emerge from something, e.g. foundations, individual beings or items or raw materials. Assumed to be related to the causative 'trigger' vo, possibly in combination with a 'of, about, by'

Known synonymous affixes: -eefa, -hefa

Examples:
lojatuk 'coir, coconut husk fiber' → lojatukefa 'cord'
to 'to go' → tefa 'destination'
vano 'to burn' → vaneefa 'ash, residue from fire'
mekoo 'to combine, collect' → mekohefa 'sum, combination, collection'

-vo Causative verb derivation suffix, similar in function to the causative 'trigger' and identical with the form it has. Used especially with unergative verbs that don't allow it being used

Known synonymous affixes: -fo, -efo, possibly in analogy with the suffix -efa

Examples:
to 'to go' → tovo 'to send, bring in'
vuhi 'light' → vuhefo 'to lighten, turn on the light'

-vi Enabler or causator noun derivation suffix, to describe the originator or the thing or being enabling or causing the existence of a thing, a state of being, or an action. Occasionally used to describe people that enable or cause something to happen as well.

Known synonymous affixes: -evi

Example:
ami 'job, work' → amivi 'energy'
nonat 'city' → nonatevi 'urbanization'
vani 'fire, heat' → vanivi 'a substance or item that enables or causes heat' / 'someone or some animal/plant that enables or causes heat (to increase)'

[edit] [top]Ability

-eeo Suffix used to derive a verb denoting the ability of something or someone to do something From eeo 'generally be able to do'.

Example:
tiso 'to burn' → tiseeo 'be burnable'

-eea Suffix used to derive noun referring to something or someone with a particular ability. From the -eeo suffix (see above) with the -a common noun suffix added, and can therefore be formed directly from a stem or from a derivation using -eeo or -eei (see below)

Example:
tiso to burn ( → tiseeo 'be burnable') → tiseea 'burnable objects, firewood'

-eei Suffix used to derive noun denoting the ability to do something. From the -eeo suffix (see above) with the -i immaterial/abstract noun suffix added, and can therefore be formed directly from a stem or from a derivation using -eeo or -eea (see above)

tiso to burn ( → tiseeo 'be burnable') → tiseei 'burnability'


[edit] [top]Society

-na Endonym/Exonym derivation suffix, used to derive nouns referring to groups of people, mostly ethnicities or populations of a nation/state. Etymologically most likely related to 'no' (to live, be).

Known synonymous affixes:
-ana (after consonants)

Example:
Jute 'Jute' → Jutena 'Jutean, Juteans'

-ni Derivation suffix for (adjectival) nouns describing a relationship to a particular ethnicity or other group of people (e.g. American), from -na + i

Known synonymous affixes:
-ani (after consonants)

Example:
Jute 'Jute' → Juteni 'Jutean'

-ehi Suffix for the derivation of a person sharing a trait/profession/etc. with another one, that is 'a fellow X'. Derived from ehe (too, like, likewise etc.)

Known synonymous affixes:
-hehi (after vowels)

Example:
ama 'worker' → amahehi 'fellow worker, colleague'

-afa Noun derivation suffix for things or places owned or done collectively, probably from a (of, by) and fa (inclusive collective first person pronoun)

Known synonymous affixes:
-fa (after words already ending in -f, particularly -af

Examples:
mihonon 'house' → mihonafa 'community hall'
vettaf 'fight, conflict' → vettaffa 'war'

-mo Agentive derivation suffix used for referring to professions, (more) permanent states or occupations or jobs. Can be used on both nouns and verbs. Originally from amo (to do, work).

Known synonymous affixes:
-amo (after consonants) (when the original words already ends in -mo)

Example:
noitosani 'teaching' → noitosanimo 'teacher'

mo- -he Temporary agentive derivation circumfix, for momentary or transitional states, acts etc. Can also be used both on verbs and nouns. Probably originating by prefixing the aforementioned, more permanent agentive suffix mo and suffixing he

Example:
letafo 'to travel' → moletafohe 'traveller, tourist'

-ona The 'patientive' derivation suffix, similar to English '-ee' as in 'employee'. Originally consisted of the combination of -o (verb suffix) + no (patientive trigger suffix) + a (common noun suffix)

Example:
hotuvi 'oppression, suppression' → hotuvona 'the oppressed, the subjugated'



ilna- Derivation prefix equivalent to "-lessness". From ilni a (absence or lack of).

Known synonymous affixes:
-l/-al (the general negation suffix, used for verbs or nouns)
-i (when deriving from stative verbs having a similar negating meaning)
il- (opposite prefix)

Examples:
diaadif 'love' → ilnadiaadif 'lovelessness'
van 'danger, fire, wildness' → vanal 'harmlessness'
netilo 'be boundless' (from neti, here 'boundary, limit') → netili 'limitlessness, boundlessness'
lumo here: 'power' → illumo 'powerlessness'

-evo Derivation prefix referring to something that is obtained from a natural resource Shortened form of evoto (to get, receive, obtain etc.)

Known synonymous affixes:
-eva (for ores)
-heva (for ores, after words ending in a vowel)

dova 'tree, wood' → dovevo 'lumber'
tusa 'silver' → tusaheva 'silver ore, natural silver alloy'

-tilo Verb derivation suffix, used to signify the repetition of an action.

Examples:
amo 'to do, work' → amotilo 'do again, repeat, habitually do'
memo here 'to say, be said' → memotilo 'repeat, be repeated'

-ilvu A derivation suffix used to form words referring to the end of something. Originates in the word ilvuni (end)

Examples:
kiovi 'part' → kiovilvu 'end part, e.g. of a device'
vuhat 'holiday' → vuhatilvu 'last day or end of a/the holiday(s)'

dona- Prefix used to derive words referring to a period of time. From doona 'time'.

Known synonymous affixes:
don- (in front of vowels)

Examples:
heiti 'dullness' → donaheiti 'boredom, time of boredom'
fefeo 'to rain' → donafefe 'rainy season'

-hea Suffix meaning 'away', used to derive verbs or sometimes nouns that entail a literal or metaphorical movement away from something. From hea 'outwards'.

Known synonymous affixes:
-ehea (after consonants, only in nouns)
-heo (when used with verbs)

Examples:
amdo 'break' → amdoheo 'to break away'
nuo 'to give' → nohea 'surrender'

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