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Code of Enki-Tuš
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The first of the Three Divine Codes revered in both Dingir and Karkem-Showash tradition. Enki-Tuš' establishes the foundation of criminal law.
This public article was written by Arcaeca, and last updated on 15 Mar 2018, 08:56.

[comments] Menu 1. Prologue: Divine Appointment 2. Section I: Murder and Manslaughter 3. Section II: Assault, Battery and Negligent Injury
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[top]Prologue: Divine Appointment

ȟ​ ņǩƫwģ​ ſ​ eļaĸaĸȸ​ ťqŀ​ ţ​ uņǩƫwƥa​ eȵuȟdŭsł​ eȿŭtĭėpŕaĭiľiĸèł​ eėnjħƥĝł​ edžadřbʼnł​ òňbʼnĺñƥ​ idŧũŀ​ enjônjôķkdžķadžģ​ dȑ​ ȑuėşş​ eňuƿƨł​ òňș​ uȿl​ uňaňańƫ​ ľx.​ eadřȸ​ eȿŭtĭėpŕaĭiľiĸnjôƫ​ âŀ​ ĭ​ ďbś​ ÿ​ edždž​ xȵŀ​ ĭ​ ÿ​ eèȑèȑ.​ ń​ ŝģ​ ćȓŀ​ ĭ​ ņöq​ ŝģ​ ćȓŀ​ eļdždžģ​ aŭz​ ĭ​ iŝģ​ eaõöċj​ ĭ​ iŝģ​ eaõötńit​ ĭ​ iŝģ​ ņȣʼnġ​ ćţƫ​ eańȑ​ ĭ​ eļiŝċwċwģ​ pņ​ ȑuƀwƀwö​ eaõöƀcq​ ​ ĭ​ pņ​ ȑualȓalȓö.​ ŝśa​ õöȿŭteǧeŀ​ eaŝaţaŕ​ ĭ​ ŝģ​ ņöqaďĭitȑƫ​ eaòňuȿw​ ĭ​ ŵšȑŧ​ ŝuyȿƫ​ ĭ​ ŝèdžģ​ eaõöaɉš.​ eƫ​ uèdžaɉwȑö​ eļņǩƫweȿŭtĭėƥaaĭľiĸĺañaaƕdřȸ​ â.​ eļȟaĸaĸģ​ śċ.​ Ḡi Enki-tuš-gu šeŋ, ele-aku-aku-bu tek-lu ta u-Enki-tuš-pa-nu, e-Uŋu-Ḡid-Muslam, e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-Eleklam, e-Eken-eŋḡe-Paglam, e-Du-Adir-Bunlam, nin-bunlam-pa idtim-lu e-eŋne-eŋne-kakdu-kakdu-gu dur uru-Eken-su-su, e-Inu-Pešerlam, nin-ši u-šul u-inan-inan-tu liḵ. E-adir-bu e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-eŋne-tu bun-lu, i dab-ša p̄e e-du-du ḵuŋ-lu, i p̄e e-elekur-elekur. An si-gu ḵapu-lu, i Ennuk si-gu ḵapu-lu, ele-du-du-gu a-mus, i isi-gu ea-ninu-ḵiḇ, i isi-gu ea-ninu-tanit, i isi-gu enek-un-gi ḵata-tu ea-anur, i ele-isi-ḵiš-ḵiš-gu pen uru-baš-baš-nu ea-ninu-basak , i pen uru-alpu-alpu-nu. Si-ša ninu-Šumut-eglu ea-si-a-tadar, i si-gu Ennuk-ardaŋ-i-itur-tu ea-ninušuš, i aššur-ti si-up̄šu-tu, i si-elekdu-gu ea-ninu-aḇuš. Etu u-elekdu-aḇuš-ur-nu ele-Enki-Tuš-e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-Eleklam-aḡu-i-adir-bu bun. Ele-ḡi-aku-aku-gu ša-ḵi. (No conscript set up) Ḡi Enki-tuš-gu šeŋ, ele-aku-aku-ša tek-lu ta u-Enki-tuš-pa-nu, e-Uŋu-Ḡid-Muslam, e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-Eleklam, e-Eken-Šul-alpu-Paglam, e-Du-Adir-Bunlam, nin-bunlam-pa idtim-lu e-eŋne-eŋne-kakdu-kakdu-gu dur uru-Eken-Šul-su-su, e-Inu-Pešerlam, nin-ši u-šul u-inan-inan-tu liḵ. E-adir-ša e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-eŋne-tu bun-lu, i dab-ša p̄e e-du-du ḵuŋ-lu, i p̄e e-elekur-elekur. An si-gu ḵapu-lu, i Ennuk si-gu ḵapu-lu, ele-du-du-gu a-mus, i isi-gu ea-ninu-ḵiḇ, i isi-gu ea-ninu-tanit, i isi-gu enek-un-gi ḵata-tu ea-anur, i ele-isi-ḵiš-ḵiš-gu pen uru-baš-baš-nu ea-ninu-basak , i pen uru-alpu-alpu-nu. Si-ša ninu-Šumut-eglu ea-si-a-tadar, i si-gu Ennuk-ardaŋ-i-itur-tu ea-ninušuš, i aššur-ti si-up̄šu-tu, i si-elekdu-gu ea-ninu-aḇuš. Etu u-elekdu-aḇuš-ur-nu ele-Enki-Tuš-e-Šumut-i-Eken-Para-i-Iliku-Eleklam-aḡu-i-adir-bu bun. Ele-ḡi-aku-aku-gu ša-ḵi. /kʰʷi ɛ̃nkituʃkʷu ʃɛ̃ŋ ɛlɛʔɑkuʔɑkuʃɑ tɛklu tɑ uʔɛ̃nkituʃpɑ̃nu ɛʔuŋukʰʷidmuslɑm ɛʃumutiʔɛkɛ̃npɑɾɑʔiʔilikuʔɛlɛklɑm ɛʔɛkɛ̃nʃulɑlpupɑkʷlɑm ɛduʔɑdiɾpʷunlɑm ninpʷunlɑmpɑ idtimlu ɛʔɛ̃ŋnɛʔɛ̃ŋnɛkɑkdukɑkdukʷu duɾ uɾuʔɛkɛ̃nʃulsusu ɛʔinupɛʃɛɾlɑm ninʃi uʃul uʔinɑ̃ninɑ̃ntu likʰ | ɛʔɑdiɾʃɑ ɛʃumutiʔɛkɛ̃npɑɾɑʔiʔilikuʔɛ̃ŋnɛtu pʷunlu i dɑpʷʃɑ pʰɛ ɛdudu kʰuŋlu i pʰɛ ɛʔɛlɛkuɾɛlɛkuɾ | ɑ̃n sikʷu kʰɑpulu i ɛ̃n:uk sikʷu kʰɑpulu ɛlɛdudukʷu ɑmus i isikʷu ɛʔɑ̃ninukʰipʰʷ i isikʷu ɛʔɑ̃ninutɑ̃nit i isikʷu ɛ̃nɛkunkʷi kʰɑtɑtu ɛʔɑʔɑ̃nuɾ i ɛlɛʔisikʰiʃkʰiʃkʷu pɛ̃n uɾupʷɑʃpʷɑʃnu ɛʔɑ̃ninupʷɑsɑk i pɛ̃n uɾuʔɑlpuʔɑlpunu | siʃɑ ninuʃumutɛkʷlu ɛʔɑsiʔɑtɑdɑɾ i sikʷu ɛ̃n:ukɑɾdɑ̃ŋiʔituɾtu ɛʔɑ̃ninuʃuʃ i ɑʃ:uɾti siʔupʰʃutu i siʔɛlɛkdukʷu ɛʔɑ̃ninuʔɑpʰʷuʃ | ɛtu uʔɛlɛkduʔɑpʰʷuʃuɾnu ɛlɛʔɛ̃nkituʃɛʃumutiʔɛkɛ̃npɑɾɑʔiʔilikuʔɛlɛklɑmɑkʰʷuʔiʔɑdiɾpʷu pʷun | ɛlɛkʰʷiʔɑkuʔɑkukʷu ʃɑkʰi/
I am Enki-tuš, these words were written by the hand of Enki-tuš, the ruler of the Three Marches, the king of Šumut, Eken-para and Iliku, the keeper of the valley of the Eken River, the law-giver of the land, whose hand conquered the reaches of the peoples unto the mountains of the Eken River, the overseer of the harvest, he who directs the river to the fields. The law was put forth unto the people of Šumut, Eken-para and Iliku, and peace was established among the lands, and among the kingdoms. An set him forth, and Ennuk set him forth, to rule these lands, and to bejewel them, and to make them splendorous, and to send them victorious into battle, and to cause their cities to sprawl across the plains, and across the valleys. He was made lord of Šumut to uplift it, and to dedicate it to Ennuk's power and might, and his matchless glory, and to prosper his kingdom. For the prosperity of the kingdom is the word and the law of Enki-Tuš the king of Šumut, Eken-para and Iliku put forth. Hear my words.
[top]Section I: Murder and Manslaughter
ŀeł​ pňġ​ ŀeĺaaģ​ ĉyřdž​ ľ​ tńóö​ ŝȸ​ õöcñŕč.​ ȹȸ​ ĥďw​ ľ​ tńóö​ ŝȸ​ ře​ uèdžǫǫö​ bńuč.​ ŀeł​ pňeĺñƅļeģ​ ĉyřdž​ ľ​ tńóö​ ŝȸ​ ře​ uèdžǫǫö​ bńuč​ ĭ​ eŝéȸ​ ĭ​ eŝkņśa​ ĭ​ uòǹŝaƫȸ​ elĉč​ ĭ​ eƅļeƞƫĺañaƫ​ šʼneč.​ ȹȸ​ ĥďw​ ľ​ tńóö​ ŝ​ eƞƫĺaaƫ​ uòřcñaƅļeđeeģ​ ƫxčġi​ ƞýč.​ ƅļe​ ŀeĺaaģ​ ĉyřdž​ ŝȸ​ õöcñŕč.​ ƅļe​ pňġ​ ƅļeģ​ ĉyřdž​ eŝƞƫł​ ecñŕƅļeƞƫĺañaƫ​ uòřcñaƅļeđeeģ​ ƫxčġi​ ƞýč.​ eł​ eŝƅļùģ​ ĉyřdž​ eŝéśa​ ĭ​ eŝkņȸ​ ĭ​ uòǹŝaƫśa​ elĉč​ ĭ​ eċwlńaƫ​ ĭ​ ŝȸ​ eċwlńaƫ​ õöƅļeč.​ Lu-elam pin-gi lu-elam-gu ḵep̄ir-du li tanna-nu, si-bu ninu-samar-ḵu. Pi-bu ḡa-daš li tanna-nu, si-bu ire u-elekdu-p̄ad-p̄ad-nu banu-ḵu. Lu-elam pin-elam-bileš-gu ḵep̄ir-du li tanna-nu, si-bu ire u-elekdu-p̄ad-p̄ad-nu banu-ḵu, i e-si-enu-bu i e-si-ken-ša i u-niŋ-si-aŋtu-bu elḵe-ḵu i e-bileš-aŋtulam-tu šune-ḵu. Pi-bu ḡa-daš li tanna-nu, si e-aŋtulam-tu u-nir-samar-bileš-deme-gu tuḵḵu-gi aŋp̄a-ḵu. Bileš lu-elam-gu ḵep̄ir-du, si-bu ninu-samar-ḵu. Bileš pin-gi bileš-gu ḵep̄ir-du, e-si-aŋtulam e-samar-bileš-aŋtulam-tu u-nir-samar-bileš-deme-gu tuḵḵu-gi aŋp̄a-ḵu. Elam e-si-bileš-gu ḵep̄ir-du, e-si-enu-ša i e-si-ken-bu i u-niŋ-si-aŋtu-ša elḵe-ḵu i e-ḵiš-lana-tu, i si-bu e-ḵiš-lana-tu ninu-bileš-ḵu. /luʔɛlɑm pinkʷi luʔɛlɑmkʷu kʰɛpʰiɾdu li tɑ̃n:ɑ̃nu sipʷu ninusɑmɑɾkʰu pipʷu kʰʷɑdɑʃ li tɑ̃n:ɑ̃nu sipʷu iɾɛ uʔɛlɛkdupʰɑdpʰɑdnu pʷɑ̃nukʰu luʔɛlɑm pinɛlɑmpʷilɛʃkʷu kʰɛpʰiɾdu li tɑ̃n:ɑ̃nu sipʷu iɾɛ uʔɛlɛkdupʰɑdpʰɑdnu pʷɑ̃nukʰu i ɛsiʔɛ̃nupʷu i ɛsikɛ̃nʃɑ i uniŋsiʔɑ̃ŋtupʷu ɛlkʰɛkʰu i ɛpʷilɛʃɑ̃ŋtulɑmtu ʃunɛkʰu pipʷu kʰʷɑdɑʃ li tɑ̃n:ɑ̃nu si ɛʔɑ̃ŋtulɑmtu uniɾsɑmɑɾpʷilɛʃdɛmɛkʷu tukʰ:ukʷi ɑ̃ŋpʰɑkʰu pʷilɛʃ luʔɛlɑmkʷu kʰɛpʰiɾdu sipʷu ninusɑmɑɾkʰu pʷilɛʃ pinkʷi pʷilɛʃkʷu kʰɛpʰiɾdu ɛsiʔɑ̃ŋtulɑm ɛsɑmɑɾpʷilɛʃɑ̃ŋtulɑmtu uniɾsɑmɑɾpʷilɛʃdɛmɛkʷu tukʰ:ukʷi ɑ̃ŋpʰɑkʰu ɛlɑm ɛsipʷilɛʃkʷu kʰɛpʰiɾdu ɛsiʔɛ̃nuʃɑ i ɛsikɛ̃npʷu i uniŋsiʔɑ̃ŋtuʃɑ ɛlkʰɛkʰu i ɛkʰiʃlɑ̃nɑtu i sipʷu ɛkʰiʃlɑ̃nɑtu ninupʷilɛʃkʰu/
1. If a free man kill another free man in ire, he shall be put to death. 2. If it were not done in ire, he shall be cast out from the borders of the kingdom. 3. If a free man kill another man's slave in ire, he shall be cast out from the kingdom, and his house, and his flocks, and all that he possesses shall be seized and offered up to the owner of that slave. 4. If it were not done in ire, he shall pay to the owner the full value of that slave. 5. If a slave kill a free man, he shall be put to death. 6. If a slave kill another slave, his owner shall pay to the owner of the slave who was killed, the full value of the slave who was killed. 7. If a man kill his own slave, his house, and his flocks, and all that he possesses shall be offered up to the governor of the town, and he shall be made a slave to the governor of the town.
[top]Section II: Assault, Battery and Negligent Injury
eł​ epňeĺñôbȸģ​ ǥƀdž​ eŝôbȸȸ​ ǥƀč.​ eł​ epňeĺñdȑģ​ ɋļdž​ eŝdȑȸ​ ɋļč.​ eł​ epňeĺñģ​ šȵö​ šȑódž​ ŝȸ​ šȵďd​ šȑóč.​ eł​ eƅļeôbȸģ​ ǥƀdž​ ƞ​ eƅļedȑģ​ ɋļdž​ ŝ​ uŝađeeģ​ elnjġ​ ƞýč.​ eł​ aȿģ​ šȑódž​ eŝƥaȸ​ ƙƨȓč.​ ȹȸ​ ĥďw​ ľ​ tńóö​ ŝ​ eló​ ŧĝaģ​ ǹč.​ aȿ​ eĺñģ​ šȑódž​ ŝ​ eló​ ŧĝaģ​ ǹč.​ ƅļe​ ŀeĺaaģ​ šȑódž​ eŝƥaȸ​ ƙƨȓč.​ eł​ eŝƅļùôbȸģ​ ǥƀdž​ ŝ​ eƅļeģ​ õölȑč.​ eł​ eŝƅļùdȑģ​ ɋļdž​ ŝ​ eƅļeģ​ òňaśdžćw​ jř​ ļ​ ušȑȿ​ źŝŀ.​ Elam e-pin-elam-nebbu-gu ikba-du, e-si-nebbu-bu ikba-ḵu. Elam e-pin-elam-dur-gu akle-du, e-si-dur-bu akle-ḵu. Elam e-pin-elam-gu šuŋnu šurna-du, si-bu šuŋdad šurna-ḵu. Elam e-bileš-nebbu-gu ikba-du, aŋ e-bileš-dur-gu akle-du, si u-si-a-deme-gu eleŋ-gi aŋp̄a-ḵu. Elam ašu-gu šurna-du, e-si-pa-bu kešepu-ḵu. Pi-bu ḡa-daš li tanna-nu, si elna tiga-gu iŋ-ḵu. Ašu elam-gu šurna-du, si elna tiga-gu iŋ-ḵu. Bileš lu-elam-gu šurna-du, e-si-pa-bu kešepu-ḵu. Elam e-si-bileš-nebbu-gu ikba-du, si e-bileš-gu ninu-lur-ḵu. Elam e-si-bileš-dur-gu akle-du, si e-bileš-gu nina-šardu-ḵaš ḇir le u-šur-šu essi-lu. /ɛlɑm ɛpinɛlɑmnɛpʷ:ukʷu ikpʷɑdu ɛsinɛpʷ:upʷu ikpʷɑkʰu ɛlɑm ɛpinɛlɑmduɾkʷu ɑklɛdu ɛsiduɾpʷu ɑklɛkʰu ɛlɑm ɛpinɛlɑmkʷu ʃuŋnu ʃuɾnɑdu sipʷu ʃuŋdɑd ʃuɾnɑkʰu ɛlɑm ɛpʷilɛʃnɛpʷ:ukʷu ikpʷɑdu ɑ̃ŋ ɛpʷilɛʃduɾkʷu ɑklɛdu si usiʔɑdɛmɛkʷu ɛlɛ̃ŋkʷi ɑ̃ŋpʰɑkʰu ɛlɑm ɑʃukʷu ʃuɾnɑdu ɛsipɑpʷu kɛʃɛpukʰu pipʷu kʰʷɑdɑʃ li tɑ̃n:ɑ̃nu si ɛlnɑ tikʷɑkʷu iŋkʰu ɑʃu ɛlɑmkʷu ʃuɾnɑdu si ɛlnɑ tikʷɑkʷu iŋkʰu pʷilɛʃ luʔɛlɑmkʷu ʃuɾnɑdu ɛsipɑpʷu kɛʃɛpukʰu ɛlɑm ɛsipʷilɛʃnɛpʷ:ukʷu ikpʷɑdu si ɛpʷilɛʃkʷu ninuluɾkʰu ɛlɑm ɛsipʷilɛʃduɾkʷu ɑklɛdu si ɛpʷilɛʃkʷu ninɑʃɑɾdukʰɑʃ pʰʷiɾ lɛ uʃuɾʃu ɛs:ilu/


8. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
9. If a man break the bone of another man, his bone shall be broken.
10. If a man somehow injure another man, he shall be similarly injured.
11. If a man injure put out the eye of a slave, or break the bone of a slave, he shall pay half its value.
12. If a man injure a woman, his hand shall be cut off.
13. If it were not done in ire, he shall receive 20 lashes.
14. If a woman injure a man, she shall receive 20 lashes.
15. If a slave injure a free man, his hand shall be cut off.
16. If a man put out the eye of his own slave, he shall let that slave go free.
17. If a man break the bone of his own slave, he shall not cause that slave to do any work until the wound has healed.

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