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Allophony
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Allophony rules explained
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 3 Jun 2022, 00:00.

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<nomenu>

Consonants

<b> is [v] after [m] and in the beginning or middle of consonant clusters, and [β] in other environments, except for <bb>, which is [b̪v]

<bf> is [βʷ] at the beginning or end of words, but [β.f] when preceded by a syllable ending in a vowel

<f> is in consonant clusters [ʷ], except when it is the first sound in a cluster or follows [ɭ], [ɹ], [h] or [ʍ], or if the cluster is at the end of the word. <f> is [f] if it is the first letter of a word, or if standing before a vowel, unless immediately preceded by another vowel or [g]

<s> is before [ʈ], [ɭ] or palatals [s], otherwise it is [ʂ], <ss> is [z], and can not appear at the beginning of words. In loans with initial [z] it is preceded by an unstressed [ɪ].

<sf> is [ʂʷ], unless the cluster is word-final or precedes a palatals, in which case it is [sʷ]

<t> is [ʈ] at the beginning of words or syllables, unless preceded by another retroflex or palatals, in that and other cases it is [t]

<g> is [ʒ] before vowel diphthongs and plosives and [ʒə] before palatals.
If followed by a fricative, it becomes [gə], except when the fricative is [f], in which case there is no [ə] between both sounds and the ensuing [gf] cluster becomes [gʷ], or [ʒʷə] if a palatal follows both immediately.
In other environments <g> is [g].

If [ʒ] appears at the beginning of a word or before single vowels, it is represented with <z>.

<j> is [jə] before [ʒ] and at word-final positions, [ʝə] before other consonants and consonant clusters with no [ʒ], [j] at the end of consonant clusters (unless they are word-final), and [ʝ] in other environments.

<nj> is [ɲ], except when preceded by [ʝ], in which case it is [n.j]

Vowels

If two identical vowels appear together, the first one is connected to the other ones through a glide (/w/). This is not expressed in writing.

<o> is [ʊ] in vowel diphthongs like <io> [ɪʊ] (except <ou> and <uo>, which are [ʊə] and [ɯə]) and at the beginning of words, and otherwise [o]

<u> is [ʊ] at the end of words, otherwise [ɯ], except for <ou>, which is [ʊə]

<a> is [a] in most unstressed syllables, particularly in the -sa infinitive suffix, otherwise [ɐ]

<e> is [ɘ] after [ʝ], [ʝʷ] and in vowel diphthongs aside from <ie>, in <ie>, <ue> and in most unstressed syllables (neither primary nor secondary stress) [ə], otherwise [ɛ]

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