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Yokulta [YKU]
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Typology Complete 1,485 words
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Yokulta
nirat johkuldadiid / johkulinirat
[ȵiɹaθ joʔkʰʊltaȶi:t joʔkʰʊlɪȵiɹaθ]*
Registered by [Deactivated User] on 9 January 2021
Language type A priori
Place & SpeakersYokulta is spoken by a population of around 20,000 in Ruoma.
Species Human/humanoid
About Yokulta
Novúkol_aihs, sátx_utitsaidoq!

Novúkollaihs, sáččuticaidoq!

[ˈnovu:ˌkʰol:aɪ̯ʰs ˈsa:t͡ɕ:ʊˌȶʰit͡saɪ̯ˌtoq]

good-ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
=COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-IMPImperative (mood)
command
south-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-child-VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'

Welcome, child of the south!


Niryokulta 2.0

I intended to use  Niryokulta for my conworld, but it had so many words for modern things and too chaotic derivation rules (read: no rules) that I decided to remake it. Now it is spoken by the northernmost people of my conworld Kélas, living in more or less matriarchic tribes. This page describes the dialect of the inland Yokultan peoples.

Aesthetics are made to more or less resemble Sámic and IYU languages, whereas phonology and grammar are just random features thrown in, though there might be influences mainly from Nivkh (and Greenlandic a little bit). Lexicon is purely a priori, loosely based on Niryokulta.

Features

- VOS primary word order
- agglutinative/polysynthetic
- generally very regular language
- though a little bit of sandhi is involved
- 15 cases
- split ergative in past tense (nouns only)
- up to 9 slots for affixes on verbs with possible stacking of mood endings (behold the beauty of Aslahtáihččá? "Could you tell me?" (1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
=tell-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-PERMPermissive (mood)
the action is permitted
-CONDConditional (mood)
would
-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
asks questions
)
)
- that being said there are 11 moods and 8 aspects
- 20 numeral categories/classifiers (and counting??? they keep showing up!! help!!!)
- we have a lot of (pre)aspiration, do u want some

yes the grammar is finished but there are always some small, obscure features hiding in the wild waiting for me to add them into any of my conlangs
Sample of Yokulta[view] Piánujunbáin veǩa áisikon novkon savvi: agehsgisseabbájuhs age áisikonsa šeakonihk, piánqášejuncuc age lakonsa.

It is a good rule after reading a new book, never to allow yourself another new one till you have read an old one in between.
[view all texts]
Latest vocabulary
qášeadpinbetween
qášadpbetween
lakattnoldness
Language family relationships
Language treeSela-Ihami-Yokultan
 ⤷ Proto-Sela-Ihami-Yokultan
  ⤷ Proto-Yokultan
   ⤷ Old Yokulta
    ⤷ Inland dialects
     ⤷  Yokulta
[view] About Sela-Ihami-YokultanBasically the reboot of Yokultan language family of Sahar, this time designed to fit into my conworld.
Phonology
ConsonantsBilabialLabio-
dental
DentalAlveolarAlveolo-
palatal
PalatalLabio-
velar
VelarUvularGlottal
Nasal m m:     n n: [ȵ]1 [ȵ:]2     ŋ ŋ: [ɴ]3 [ɴ:]4  
Plosive p p: pʰ pʰ:     t t: tʰ tʰ: [ȶ]5 [ȶ:]6 [ȶʰ]7 [ȶʰ:]8     k k: kʰ kʰ: q9 q:10 [ʔ]11
Fricative [ɸ]12 v v: [θ]13 ð ð: s s: ɕ ɕ: [ʝ]14   x15 [χ]16 h h: [ɦ]17
Affricate       t͡s t͡s: t͡ɕ t͡ɕ:       [q͡χ]18  
Lateral approximant       l19 l:20            
Approximant       [ɹ]21   j j: [w]22      
Flap       ɾ ɾ:            
  1. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /n/
  2. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /n:/
  3. before /q/, allophone of /m n ŋ/
  4. before /q/, allophone of /m: n: ŋ:/
  5. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /t/
  6. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /t:/
  7. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /tʰ/
  8. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /tʰ:/
  9. in free variation with /qʰ/
  10. in free variation with /qʰ:/
  11. before aspirated stops, allophone of /h/
  12. word-finally, allophone of /pʰ/
  13. word-finally, allophone of /tʰ/
  14. before /ɪ/ and /i:/, allophone of /j/
  15. also word-final allophone of /kʰ/
  16. before /q/, allophone of /h/
  17. before voiced consonants, allophone of /h/
  18. /qh qx/ > [q͡χ]
  19. pronounced as a voiceless lateral fricative by some speakers
  20. pronounced as a voiceless lateral fricative by some speakers
  21. before [ʊ uo̯ w], after [ɪ i i: w], allophone of /ɾ/
  22. before liquids, allophone of /ʊ/
VowelsFrontNear-
front
CentralNear-
back
Back
Close [i]1 i:       u:
Near-close   ɪ   ʊ  
Close-mid e       o
Mid     [ə]2    
Near-open æ æ:        
Open a a:       [ɑ]3
Polyphthongs uo̯ uɑ̯ oɑ̯
  1. after alveolo-palatals and [ʝ], allophone of /ɪ/
  2. epenthetic; not written
  3. before uvulars and glottals, allophone of /a/
Syllable Structure(C)(j)V(j)(C)(C)

Consonant clusters consisting of three phonemes highly restricted and most of them are reduced by the sandhi, leaving only a LCC pattern clusters where L is [j~ʲ] or /h/. Sometimes, unwritten [ə] can be inserted, especially if the cluster is word-final.
Stress informationPrimary stress on initial syllable. Secondary stress on even syllables.
OtherRegarding prepalatalisation and preaspiration:
Prepalatalisation is often realized as simple [j].
Preaspiration: /h/ before aspirated stops is almost always [ʔ], very rarely [x] or [h]; before plain stops, it is realized most often as simple preaspiration [ʰ] but [x] or [h] can be also often heard.
Orthography
Below is the orthography for Yokulta. This includes all graphemes as defined in the language's phonology settings - excluding the non-distinct graphemes/polygraphs.
 YokultaOrthography [edit]
Aa
Aa
/a/, [ɑ]1
Áá
Áá
/a:/
Bb
Bb
/p/
TXtx
Čč
/t͡ɕ/
Tsts
Cc
/t͡s/
Dd
Dd
/t/
Ee
Ee
/e/
Ä ä
EA ea
/æ/
EÁ eá
EÁ eá
/æ:/
Gg
Gg
/k/
Hh
Hh
/h/, [ɦ]2, [ʔ]3, [χ]4
Ii
Ii
/ɪ/, [i]5
Íí
Íí
/i:/
Í í
II ii
/i:/
Jj
Jj
/j/, [ʝ]6
Kk
Kk
/kʰ/
Ǩǩ
Ǩǩ
/x/7
Ll
Ll
/l/8
Mm
Mm
/m/
Nn
Nn
/n/, [ȵ]9, [ɴ]10
Oo
Oo
/o/
Pp
Pp
/pʰ/, [ɸ]11
Qq
Qq
/q/12
Rr
Rr
/ɾ/, [ɹ]13
Xx
Šš
/ɕ/
Ss
Ss
/s/
Tt
Tt
/tʰ/, [ȶʰ]14, [θ]15, [ȶ]16
Uu
Uu
/ʊ/, [w]17
Úú
Úú
/u:/
Vv
Vv
/v/
Đð
Đđ
/ð/
Ŋŋ
Ŋŋ
/ŋ/
✖ Unknown alphabetical order [change]
  1. before uvulars and glottals
  2. before voiced consonants
  3. before aspirated stops
  4. before /q/
  5. after alveolo-palatals and [ʝ]
  6. before /ɪ/ and /i:/
  7. also word-final allophone of /kʰ/
  8. pronounced as a voiceless lateral fricative by some speakers
  9. before /ɪ/ and /i:/
  10. before /q/, allophone of /m n ŋ/
  11. word-finally
  12. in free variation with /qʰ/
  13. before [ʊ uo̯ w], after [ɪ i i: w]
  14. before /ɪ/ and /i:/
  15. word-finally
  16. before /ɪ/ and /i:/
  17. before liquids
Typological information for Yokulta

Morphological typologyAgglutinative
Morphosyntactic alignmentSplit Ergative
Number of nominal casesEight cases or more
Primary word orderVOS

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